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|The Earth's Upper Mantle is dominantly peridotitic but in convergent margin regions, such as the S.W. Pacific, subduction of oceanic crust gives greater chemical and petrological diversity to upper mantle petrology and petrogenesis. Examination of currently active, Quaternary and Tertiary volcanism in the S.W. Pacific, particularly seeking information from ocean floor sampling to characterize the basement to island arcs and to investigate active spreading centres, consistently points to parental magmas of basaltic to picritic character. However, these parental magmas are chemically diverse and it is not possible to designate a characteristic 'island arc' or 'convergent margin' petrogenesis in the sense of a characteristic mantle source composition and a charactistic partial melting regime. In this respect, magma genesis at convergent margins contrasts with that at oceanic spreading centres. Our studies emphasize the importance of source peridotite ranging from 'fertile lherzolite' (i.e. compositions with 3-4% CaO, A12O3, 0.3-0.5% Na2O) to refractory harzburgite (|