Mamatic Evolution and Exhalative Ores: Evidence from the SW Pacific

Organization: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Pages: 5
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1987
The earliest suggestions that some metallic ore deposits might have resulted from seafloor volcanic exhalation seem to have been those of Elie de Beaumont in 1847 and Henry de la Beche in 1851. In 1885 Tinoco, and Bouglise and Cumenge, independently investigating-.the manto copper deposits of the Boleo district of Baja California, proposed that these had formed on the seafloor by precipitation from "hydrothermal submarine emanations". Some twenty years later the Japanese geologists Kukuchi and Tsujimoto (1904) put forward the idea that the Kuroko ore- bodies were seafloor volcanic sinter deposits and in 1919 this was re-affirmed by Ohashi. In 1909 the English geologists Thomas and MacAllister postulated a similar origin for some of the gold deposits of Mount Morgan in Queensland. Between the wars the great European economic geologists Niggli and Schneiderhohn both clearly recognized a class of seafloor hydrothermal deposits. The idea rose again immediately after the Second World War in a very clear statement by Hegeman in 1948, which was followed by contributions by Ehrenberg and Kraume and their co-workers on the submarine volcanic origin of the Meggen and Rammelsberg orebodies in 1954 and 1955 respectively. In 1955 the present writer, quite unaware of early or contemporary work on volcanic exhalative ore deposits, proposed a volcanic sedimentary/diagenetic origin for the stratiform base metal ores of SE Australia. In doing so the writer emphasized the probable importance of island arc volcanism, suggested that some "metallogenetic regions" of ancient terrains were in fact old island arc systems, that the composition of the ores might be related to the composition of the associated volcanic rocks and that such ores would be tied to volcanic stratigraphy. Ideas on relations between volcanism and stratiform ore genesis have thus been evolving over.a period of some 140 years and, beginning with the observations on Baja California in 1882, work round the rim of the Pacific has made an important contribution over a period of more than 100 years.
Full Article Download:
(184 kb)