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|Blast vibration control and assessment techniques have been developed which supplement traditional charge mass scaling methods. The improved techniques, which can be used to predict air and ground vibration levels at the planning stage, and to assist in the control of blasting operations, have reduced the level of operating risk concerning blast vibration. In addition to such factors as charge mass, distance and blast vibration levels, these additional techniques take account of orientation of the blasting face, topographic shielding, wavefront reinforcement, and meteorological conditions. They have assisted in compliance with specified blast vibration levels for environmental licence and mining lease conditions, the reduction of blast vibration nuisance to residents in the area surrounding a mine, and control of building and rock structure response in adjacent areas on the mine lease area.|