The Partition of Energy in Blasting with Non-Ideal Explosives

Lownds C M,
Organization: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Pages: 8
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1990
Several classes of commercial explosives and blasting agents behave non-ideally, especially in diameters near their critical diameter. A direct and convenient measure of non-ideal behavior is the detonation velocity (VOD); if the VOD is less than the ideal value, usually obtained by calculation, then the explosive is detonating in the non-ideal mode. Such lowering of the VOD is usually due to both lateral loss of energy and post-CJ release of energy. The second of these factors, namely slow release of chemical energy, is of most interest in blasting. While the observation of a low VOD clearly suggests slow reaction of part of the explosive composition, it does not necessarily mean that the energy is lost to the overall rock-breaking process. The partition of the energy of the explosive into various useful and wasteful categories is considered. Simple models of energy partition in blasting, and of explosive reaction kinetics, are presented. The models consider the effect of explosive type and rock type, the explosive being described in terms of the most common phases namely liquid, air bubbles, porous ammonium nitrate, dense or crystalline ammonium nitrate, and aluminum. Over a range of combinations of the above phases, the model predicts reasonable critical diameters and VOD's. Results are presented which show the effects of non-ideal detonation on fragmentation and heave in different rock types. Conclusions are drawn about those blasting conditions in which ideal behavior is beneficial, or Disadvantageous.
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