Influence of Shot Design Parameters on Fragmetation

Rholl S A, ; Otterness R E, ; Smith N S,
Organization: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Pages: 8
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1990
The Bureau of Mines is conducting research to develop blast designs for the control of fragmentation and rock displacement and the reduction of overall mining costs. This Bureau experiment, a program of 25 reduced-scale blasts conducted at the University of Missouri-Rolla's experimental quarry, determined the effects on fragmentation of changes in burden, spacing, explosive diameter, and stemming-explosive length. Combined with previous work at this experimental quarry examining air gap, delay, and decoupling effects, this experiment provided a data base of over 50 shots. The fragmented rock, 1000 to 3000 kg from each 3- to 4-hole blast in the 1 m bench of massive dolomite, was completely screened to assess fragmentation. The explosive used for all the tests was extra dynamite initiated by seismic caps fired from a sequential blasting machine with delays of 5.2- to 13-ms/m of burden. Empirical equations were developed which predicted the effect of shot design parameters on the fragmentation. These formulas predicted the average fragment size of each of the 25-shots to within 13 percent. For spacing to burden ratios of 1, 1.4 and 2, there were optimum burden to explosive diameter ratios (B/de) of 30, 26 and 20, respectively. Decreasing the B/d. ratio beyond these levels resulted in little or no reduction in the average size. For B/de ratios above these levels the average size increased but, at least a 15 percent reduction in the average size results when the shot design parameters are optimized.
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