Fragmentation Prediction in Bench Blasting

Wang S,
Organization: The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Pages: 4
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1990
Fragmentation is the basic concern in rock blasting and serves as the main measure of blasting effectiveness. A good estimation of fragment size distribution before blasting is very useful and helpful for selecting the proper equipment for loading, transporting, and crushing rocks. A fragmentation model is presented that is based on a hole by hole analysis and correlates the rock properties, burden, spacing, and explosive column with the blasted volume and fragmentation obtained. The drill bench is divided into three separate areas corresponding to different breakage mechanisms. They are: 1) a main breakage or casting area, 2) a secondary breaking area, and 3) an overbreak area. The boundary of the main breakage area is found from the magnitudes of strains in the stress waves and the tensile strength of the rock. The secondary breaking area is determined by stress wave reflections at discontinuities and interactions between colliding stress waves from adjacent boreholes. The overbreak area is that beyond the main breakage area "where the reflected tensile waves no longer break the rock. This analysis is applied on a hole by hole basis to locate the breaking points. Then connecting the breaking points on each side of a borehole forms the triangle of the main breakage area. This is repeated for the next hole and the remaining area is the secondary breakage area. After the angle and area for each hole are found the Kuz-Ram model is used to predict the fragmentation size distribution for each hole. Then summing up the size distribution for each hole gives the total fragmentation distribution. This analysis has been successfully applied to field tests performed in a limestone bench where the entire spoil pile was screened to determine the fragment size distribution. Knowing the explosive and rock properties the breaking area was found for each hole, the strain and stress values, the breaking point, and angle of breakage (104 degrees). The fragmentation size distribution was then calculated and compared to the field data with excellent agreement.
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