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|Mechanical agitation is the preferred system for Carbon-in-Pulp processes. Agitator design requires an understanding of the relationships between energy, shear and flow and the nature of shear rates and shear stress distribution in an agitated tank. Laser techniques are useful when studying these phenomena. The alternatives are open impeller agitation or draft tube circulation. Each has advantages and disadvantages but both require careful choice of impeller and system geometry. Overall the draft tube circulator is the more attractive in many cases. Open impeller agitators are designed in accordance with established procedures for mineral slurries taking due account of shear effects in tanks containing carbon. Preferred tank proportions are 1:1. Circulator design methods were developed in the alumina industry before being applied to CIP processes. Optimum draft tube diameter is critical to power requirements. The overall system must be designed as an axial flow pump operating in a closed circuit. Such a system exhibits quite characteristic behaviour which requires an impeller of varying pitch angle and aerofoil section for best stability and efficiency.' Tank height may be 2 or more times diameter. Resuspension of settled solids can be assisted by a series of slots in the draft tube. These slots have the secondary effect of stabilizing hydraulic behaviour and reducing installed power requirements.|