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|Technological changes in Portland cement manufacturing during past years have reflected changes in the economics and availability of various types of fuel such as coal, fuel oil and natural gas. The industry consumes a sig- nificant quantity of both thermal and electric- al energy. The nature of the process and its chemical constraints does however permit the use of comparatively low grade fuels such as high ash coal and high sulphur oil. In striving for increased daily kiln outputs and conservation of energy, there is a worldwide trend towards the use of dry process plants. Wet process kilns of about 2 500 tonnes per day assume massive component sizes which present difficulties in manufacture, and transport to plant sites. Large capacity dry process units in excess of 8 000 tonnes per day are now in operation using precalcination techniques in which part of the fuel is introduced in the static preheater section ahead of the kiln while the balance is added to the kiln in a conventional manner. This technique has virtually doubled the potential output of any given single kiln.|