Piled Raft Design For High Rise Buildings In East London, UK
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Jan 1, 2002
The current phase of office development at Canary Wharf in the London Docklands includes twelve multi-storey buildings varying from eighteen to forty stories in height. The area of Canary Wharf South comprises five multi-storey buildings with low level in fill podium and garden areas. Three of these multi-storey buildings have "pile-cap" designs where the entire building load is applied to the piles. The remaining two buildings have "piled-raft" designs where allowance is made in the design for part of the building load to be transferred to the raft formation. Using a piled-raft design approach has enabled savings to be made on the number of piles used below the raft. This paper describes the calibration analysis undertaken to validate the design method. The ground conditions at the Canary Wharf site are typically fill and recent gravel deposits over the overconsolidated clay and sand of the Lambeth Group. Below these strata is the Thanet Sand. The Lambeth Group provided the founding layer for the raft and contributed to the pile shaft resistance. The Thanet Sand stratum provided the bearing layer for the 1.5m diameter base grouted bored piles. The piled-raft design required an assessment of the building load transfer through the raft to the formation layer. This load transfer led to significant increases in effective stress in the soil below the raft and thence a corresponding increased the capacity of the piles. This interaction of the raft with the prepared formation contributed to between 27% and 45% increase in total vertical load carrying capacity of the piled-raft substructure compared with the pile-cap design method. The development of the piled-raft design was carried out in three main phases: ? Development of the approach and validation analyses. ? Design work on various schemes resulting in detailed design packages. ? Validation analyses using full 3D finite element analysis (presented herein). The validation of the piled-raft design approach was initially carried out against published case histories for piled-raft interaction. To improve on the validation work a full 3D finite element analysis of a simplified pile raft and superstructure (which contributes stiffness to the raft) was undertaken; the analysis included only a quarter of the structure due to assumed symmetry of the structure and vertical loading. This 3D validation analysis is presented herein. The analysis was carried out using the Oasys LS-DYNA finite element program. Prior to carrying out the analysis of the piled-raft an initial finite element analysis was carried out to back analyse a fully instrumented field pile test providing accurate modelling of a single pile performance. This back analysis allowed confidence in the soil parameters used in the 3D model; comparisons of shaft and base resistances between the pile test and the FE model calculations for the single pile are presented. The parameters provided in this work were then carried into the full 3D model of the piled-raft. The 3D model of the piled-raft structure included 18 piles (12 full piles and 6 half piles on an axis of symmetry of the model).