History And Present Status Of Piles And Their Installation In The United States - Expanded From A Presentation At The Deep Foundations Institute Annual Meeting Williamsburg, Virginia, December 1982
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Jan 1, 1984
Steel and concrete piles and power-actuated hammers have developed almost entirely within the past 100 years. Prior to that time, piles were mostly timber, driven with a drop hammer or a maul. The Engineering News Formula ? for timber piles driven with a drop hammer at a factor of safety of six ? was promulgated by Wellington in 1888. Steel companies supplied fabricated and rolled shapes for piles in the early 1900's. The thin shell and then uncased concrete piles originated about that time. Now leads have become sophisticated to accurately spot a pile at any required batter. Hammers have grown to phenomenal size and vibratories are being accepted at full value.