In Situ Soil Mixing Concepts Explained; Myths Dispelled - What Is Soil Mixing?

Hanford, Richard W.
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 10
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2001
The geotechnical construction industry generally considers soil mixing to be defined as an in situ ground improvement or treatment method by which a dry or wet reagent is introduced into the ground and is blended with the soil by mechanical or rotary mixing tools. This results in relatively homogenous mixtures whose engineering properties are improved and are greater than the soil properties before mixing. Reagents usually include cement, but may also include processed clay such as bentonite, when a reduction in hydraulic conductivity is desired, or other proprietary chemicals when chemical stabilization is the objective. Mixing may be either shallow or deep. Shallow Mixing is the term arbitrarily used for treatment of soils within the upper 30 feet; Deep Mixing denotes treatment below 30 feet to the depth limits of the equipment. Mixing equipment may consist of single or multiple-shaft tools having cutting and mixing blades of many different configurations. To avoid using proprietary nomenclature, reference to Shallow Mixing Methods (SMM) and Deep Mixing Methods (DMM) are the preferred terms. Although originally developed and patented in the United States in 1956, in situ construction using various soil mixing methods is more prevalent in Japan and the Scandinavian countries. Reintroduced into the United States from Japan in 1986 for ground improvement and liquefaction mitigation at Jackson Lake Dam, Wyoming, acceptance of soil mixing methods has been gradual but slow. Applications typically include:
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