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|The modern flotation machine is the result of decades of adaptation to a changing environment. In response to falling ore grades, and rising demands, tonnages, and costs, attempts are now underway to expand machine capacity by about an order of magnitude, while at the same time maintaining metallurgical performance and if possible reducing power requirements per unit throughput. Empiricism and rule-of-thumb have guided flotation machine design and scale-up, and a current need is for the development of a fundamental understanding of the subject. Design features of current and some obsolete machines are discussed in an attempt to outline those principles of flotation machine design which are known, and to delineate topics needing investigation. Attempts are made to distinguish between essential machine features required by the physics of the process, those features resulting from speculative theories on the flotation mechanisms, and features which are essentially styling variations. Topics discussed include: flotation mechanisms; tank and impeller/ stator design and dimensions; impeller speed; aeration; power consumption; particle suspension and dispersion; capacity; correlation of design parameters and operating variables; scale-up and scale- down; materials flow; problems in machine design. Design details and operating data for several current machine families are provided in Appendices.|