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|INTRODUCTION Hydraulic concentrators utilize the physical characteristics-size, shape, and specific gravity-of particles suspended in a fluid medium to effect a concentration of desired quality. Fine-coal concentrators include generally those devices which are used to clean roughly 3/4, in. (9.5 mm) top-size coals. While this size designation is somewhat arbitrary, it is consistent with current practice although some fine- coal concentrators can treat coarser coals effectively. A variety of devices have been and are currently being used to wash fine coals and include: dense media cyclones, wet concentrating tables, hydrocyclones, jigs, spirals, launders, and upward-current classifiers. As launders and upward-current classifiers have been replaced by more efficient devices, they no longer warrant consideration as fine-coal washers. And as fine-coal jigs were addressed with the Baum jig under Part 1, Section 2, and heavy media cyclones and hydrocyclones were addressed under Part 2, Section 1, of this Chapter, only the wet concentrating table and the spiral concentrator will be discussed here. WET CONCENTRATING TABLES History The current wet concentrating table evolved from continuous belt concentrators which utilized a flowing film of water to recover heavy metals. In these devices the heavier concentrate moved up the inclined plane of the belt while the lighter impurities were washed away by water flowing down the belt. The natural outgrowth of the continuous belt concentrator was the vanner, a vibrating endless belt which was first developed about 1860 by Hartwig. Later models of the vanner, such as the Frue, incorporated oscillation in a plane transverse to the direction of the water current. Excellent descriptions of these washers are found in The Cleaning of Coal, by Chapman and Mott.80 Further development of tables included the circular stationary table (Linkenbach), the multiple round table (Anaconda-Evans), the bumping table (Campbell), and finally the differential-motion table which is now used extensively for cleaning fine coals.|