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|Jigging is a process of particle stratification in which the particle re- arrangement results from an alternate expansion and compaction of a bed of particles by pulsating fluid flow. The vertical direction of fluid flow is reversed periodically. The rearrangement results in layers of particles that are arranged by increasing density from top to bottom of the bed. This response, developed from the many and continuously varying forces acting upon the particles, permits a solid-solid separation more related to particle density and less to particle size than any other "hydraulic-type" process. The stratification is usually carried out in a rectangular, open-top container called a jig, in which the mass of particles (termed a "bed") is supported on a perforated base through which the water flows in alternating directions. The coal particles, in addition to the vertically expanded and compacted bed motion, move continuously, horizontally across the supporting screen. Following the particle stratification, the particle bed is physically "cut" at a desired horizontal particle density plane to separate the desired clean coal product from the more dense refuse. The jig system includes means for continuously introducing the raw coal and for moving the water through the coal bed in a controllable manner, as well as for separating and removing the stratified particles from the system as two or more product streams. In coal preparation, this highly versatile unit operation is applied preferably to a wide size range of particles with top sizes up to 8 in. (20 cm) rather than to a closely sized fraction. In gravity ranges, the process has been applied to gold particles with a density of 19.3 and to coal particles having densities less than 1.30. Single jig washers have capacities from 5 (4.6) to greater than 700 tph (637 t/h) of feed coal. The separation results attainable by jigging have favored this unit operation as optimum for creating a clean coal product as required by steam coal specifications. Al- though the jig is used in preparing coals which are difficult to separate, its limitations to achieve both quality products and high recovery are being recognized in comparison with heavy media-based processes which make sharper separations from feeds having high "near-gravity" contents. The accu- racy of the densimetric stratification in the upper portions of the jig bed are less precise. It follows that coals with more than 10% near-gravity material|