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|Introduction There continues to be a large economic opportunity associated with improving process performance through advanced process control systems within the minerals industry. The basis for this opportunity lies in the inherently low efficiencies of many of the unit operations found in mineral processing plants as well as the continual variation that is present in the ores being processed. The ageless target of such control systems is improved recoveries and concentrate grades, higher processing rates and lower unit costs. Many plants are enjoying the benefits of modem, well functioning process control systems but few if any have achieved plant-wide optimization in an economical sense. As new process modeling and control technologies, such as neural networks, continue to evolve and develop, the potential for plant- wide optimization is becoming a closer reality. Neural network technology appears to have a significant potential in the general field of process control and control of mineral processing operations. Neural networks are an emerging technology that have been evolving out of the study of biological systems since the early 1940's. The first software simulation of neural computing networks was reported in 1956 by Nathanial Rochester of IBM Research during the first conference on artificial intelligence which was sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation. Neural Networks Neural networks can be considered to be a class of computer program that perform their problem solving functions based on a rudimentary model of the human brain and how it solves problems. Traditional computer programs and even computers themselves solve problems or process data sequentially and in a deterministic manner. The human brain, on the other hand, processes data and solves problems in a massively parallel fashion. We think of computers normally in terms of having a single processing unit, sometimes a co-processor to assist in certain activities such as mathematical functions or communications, bytes of memory, processing speed and program/data storage size.|