If you have access to OneMine as part of a member benefit, log in through your member association website for a seamless user experience.
|Swelling ground is one of the most feared problem in tunneling. Although usually not causing sudden failures during construction, the very large and long- lasting deformations give contractors and designers the impression of facing an inevitable phenomenon against which there is no technical defense. Examples are concrete liners of up to 1 m that have been cracked or crushed, tunnel inverts that are heaving at a rate of 0.1 m per week during construction and continue to heave during decades. This author (Einstein (1979). Einstein et al. (1972) (1975)) and others (Huller (19761, Grob (1972) (1976). Golta (1967), tienke (19761, Krause (1976). Lee et al. (1976)) have described many cases of swelling tunnels that illustrate the significance and magnitude of the problem. This paper intends to show that tunnels in swelling rock can be built to perform satisfactorily. . For this purpose the tunnel builder needs to know how to determine the existence and specific behavior of swelling ground, how to select appropriate structural characteristics of the tunnel and predict its performance under the specific ground conditions, and finally how to construct the tunnel such that the anticipated performance will be achieved. This concept of a design-construction procedure is the same as that for tunneling in general; it is mentioned here for NO reasons: 1. To point out that design and construction cannot and should not be separated. The way in which the tunnel will be built has to be an integral part of the design. 2. This paper will be structured corresponding to the procedural concept.|