Improved Pull out Strength of Fully Grouted Roof Bolts through Hole Geometry Modification

Giraldo, Luis
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Pages: 6
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2005
Rock bolt installation characteristics near roof falls have been identified as contributing to failure. One documented and regularly occurring failure mechanism is loss of anchorage between the grout and the rock wall of the bolt hole. Key contributors to the integrity of the grout interlocking with the rock mass are the diameter of the hole relative to the diameter of the bolt, resin versus cement type grouts, rock type, and condition of the hole. Smooth bolt holes consistently exhibit less rock bolt load bearing capacity than rough walled holes. The goal of this study was to quantify the benefits of borehole conditioning and develop a systematic approach that would allow improvement of roof bolt performance. A new rock drilling technology, the Helical Drag Bit (HDB), was used in the early stages of this project to condition the borehole. The HDB cuts a prescribed helical groove in the borehole wall. When a bolt is grouted into a hole that has been conditioned using the HDB, the grout fills the helical groove and provides a stronger, more reliable mechanical lock between the rock and the grout. This paper presents results of a series of tests conducted in the laboratory and in the field. Short encapsulation pull out tests have demonstrated considerable increase in pull out strength and more consistent bolt performance when hole geometry is modified using the HDB. The results have also shown that greater load bearing capacity improvements are obtained in mines with weak roof rock, where it is most needed. Additionally, bolts recovered for examination suggest that hole conditioning during roof bolting reduces the effects of finger gloving. Therefore, mines with stronger roof rock could also benefit from hole conditioning. A new roof bolt that uses the HDB principle has been designed and tested. The new system works with existing bolting equipment requiring minimal modifications to the traditional procedure used for installation of fully grouted rebar bolts. The use of these higher anchorage capacity bolts will allow mines to reduce severe injuries and fatalities resulting from ground failures while maintaining or increasing productivity.
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