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|Highwall mining is an important coal mining method. Upwards of 60 highwall miners are presently in operation, and they may account for approximately 4% of total U.S. coal production. A review of the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) accident data over the 20 year period from 1983 to 2002 identified 9 fatalities attributable to auger and highwall mining of which inadequate ground control accounted for 1/3. In the past 5 years, 1 fatality occurred in highwall mining. Estimates of the manpower requirements in highwall mining suggest that its fatality rate is essentially the same as for surface coal mining, thus highwall mining appears to be a very safe modern mining method. Highwall stability is the major ground control related safety concern, and operators are required to develop and follow an appropriate highwall mining ground control plan. The plans usually specify the following geotechnical parameters: hole width, maximum hole depth, maximum overburden depth, seam thickness, web pillar width, barrier pillar width and number of holes between barriers. Calculated web pillar stability factor exceeded 1.3 for most designs evaluated. This study examined records from 5,289 highwail miner holes with a total completed footage of about 2,560,000 feet to understand the reasons for early pull out. Average lost footage is typically about 20% of planned footage. Only 35% of the holes reached planned depth, and 20% were short due to rockfalls. Water and adverse geology accounted for 15% of the losses. Mechanical/electrical problems, guidance, and slope stability problems accounted for the remaining 30%. Web pillar stability factor for these holes also exceeded 1.3 in 95% of cases. Trapped highwall miners present a safety hazard to workers during their recovery. Best practices to avoid trapped highwall miners include: avoid mining in stream valleys, avoid mining near outside corners, careful alignment of each hole and the use of an onboard guidance system, Several issues in highwall mining ground control require further investigation including highwall mining through old auger workings, highwall mining near old underground mines, multiple-seam and multiple lift highwall mining and finally the size and frequency of barrier pillars.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book 23rd International Conference on Ground Control in Mining (ICGCM) 23rd
|Geomechanical Criteria of Longwall Face Support Selection at||Rock Fracture, Caving and Interaction of Face Supports Under||Effect of the Approaching Longwall Faces on Barrier and Entr||Computer Simulation of Ground Behaviour and Rock Bolt Intera||lnterpanel Barriers for Deep Western U.S. Longwall Mining||Application of Yieldable and Cuttable Pump Crib in Longwall||Field Testing of a Real Time Roof Mapping Drilling Display S||Problems in "Void" Detection in Coal Mine Water Hazards||Violent Coal Pillar Collapse -A Case Study||Stooping Low Safety Factor Pillars at Goedehoop Colliery - 1||Laboratory Strength Testing of Coal from Selected Illinois S||Downhole Overcoring Stress Measurement at a Western Undergro||Effect of In Situ Stresses on the Stability of Coal Mine Dev||SOMA: A New Method to Calculate the Operative Stress Field:||Numerical Modeling for Increased Understanding of the Behavi||Evaluation of Rockburst Hazard from Core Testing||Investigation of Electromagnetic Emissions in a Deep Undergr||Development and Application of Geotechnical and Rockmechanic||Laboratory Testing of Rib Straps||The New Two-Dimension LaModel Program||Risk Assessment: Multiseam - Single Seam Mining||A Method To Determine Expander Spacing For Steel Pipelines I||A Case Study Of Abandoned Mine Subsidence At Dominion, Nova||Spatial Trends In Rock Strength - Can They Be Determined Fro||Development And Demonstration Of An Alternate Mining Geometr||Evaluation Of Polyurethane Injection For Beltway Roof Stabil||Application Of Ground Penetrating Radar To Evaluate The Exte||A Risk Assessment Tool For Open Cast Mining In South Africa||Analysis Of Practical Ground Control Issues In Highwall Mini||Preventing Falls Of Ground In Coal Mines With Exceptionally||Geo-Mechanical Property And Failures Of Weak Roof Shales In||Eclipse System Bolting In The Illinois Basin||Variation In The Load Transfer Of Fully Encapsulated Rockbol||Bolt Load Changes During Initial Face Advance And Cross-Cut||Coal Mine Primary Support Selection: Tension Versus Non Tens||Improving Stope Support At Modikwa Platinum Mine||3D FEM Simulation For Fully Grouted Bolts||An Investigation Into The Effectiveness Of Support Systems C||Hydraulic Prestressing Units: An Innovation In Roof Support||Improving Roof Truss Performance||Coal Combustion Byproducts-Based Artificial Mine Supports -||The Influence Of Horizontal Stress On Pillar Design And Mine||Investigation Of Pillar-Roof Contact Failure In Northern App||Mapping Hazards With Microseismic Technology To Anticipate R||Practical Detection Of Underground Mine Roof Failure||Heat-Imaging Experimental Study Of Reducing Local Gas Accumu||Microcirculation Theory Analysis Of Spontaneous Combustion O|