Investigation into the Extent and Mechanisms of Gloving and Un-mixed Resin in Fully Encapsulated Roof Bolts

Campbell, R. N.
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Pages: 7
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2003
Effective strata control, utilising fully encapsulated roof bolts, is dependent on the installed quality of the reinforcement elements. One mechanism by which fully encapsulated roof bolts may become less than fully effective is by gloving (glove fingering) and un-mixing of the resin. Following some small roof failures containing gloved bolts, investigations have been undertaken in some New Zealand coal mines to determine the extent of, and mechanisms involved in, the gloving of fully encapsulated roof bolts for a range of roof types and installation methods. Gloving, in this context, refers to the resin cartridge partially or completely enveloping a length of the bolt, typically with unmixed resin filler and catalyst/hardener remaining within the cartridge. Results have shown that gloving and un-mixing is a systematic and widespread phenomena, occurring across a range of resin and/or bolt manufacturers, and across a variety of roof types. Gloving was found in bolts installed using: hand held pneumatic and continuous miner mounted hydraulic methods, under run of mine (ROM) conditions by mine workers, and under controlled "best practice" conditions. The roofs bolts investigated are all 1800mm (6ft) long, and have shown that, on average, 485mm (-19") of the bolt length is gloved and/or unmixed. This equates to a 27 percent reduction in effective bolt length. The effected length of bolt is sufficient to impact on the load transfer/reinforcement capabilities of the bolt system, and hence impacts on the design assumptions and subsequent stability assessments. Furthermore, there is a direct relationship between the mechanism for the gloving of bolts and an increased occurrence of resin loss and reduction in encapsulations length in soft (less than 10 MPa) and/or highly fractured rock. Investigations have concentrated on developing an understanding of the mechanisms involved. This has been undertaken using both field installations and recovered bolts, as well as test bench trials. The mechanisms involved have been confirmed as being: the development of a pressure front as the bolt encounters the resin and is spun up the hole, which, in turn, leads to over-pressurisation and radial expansion of the resin cartridge, resulting in an increase in diameter of the plastic resin cartridge, which allows the bolt to be spun up into the cartridge without making sufficient contact to shred the cartridge or the hardener tube, resulting in an unmixed portion of resin.
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