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|Following its introduction on underground collieries, the mandatory Code of Practice to Combat Rockfall Accidents (CoP) was applied to all opencast operations of lngwe Collieries (the South African division of BHP Billiton Energy Coal). The CoP includes, but is not limited to, requirements to assess hazards, manage them and monitor compliance. Information on methods to measure highwall conditions and compliance with control measures on opencast strip mines, as opposed to open pit mines, was found to be anything but freely available. However, on the Ingwe underground mines, a system of rating physical conditions in each section and how well production personnel were managing the situation, has been used with success for some time. It was decided that a similar approach would be taken, and, as with the underground rating system, the resultant rating forms should not be aimed at rock engineering specialists only but should be able to be used by production personnel as well. This paper discusses the highwall risk rating method as evolved over a couple of years and highlights that it is a flexible tool that can easily be changed to suit an individual mine's requirements. It also shows how operational aspects are being measured to determine how well the identified hazards are being managed. Allied to the method is a relatively easy, and certainly "low capex," mapping technique which allows between 500 and 1000m of highwall to be covered in a day. Features generally recorded include lithology, bench height, work still to be completed, coal losses or "toes", presence of water, dolerite intrusions, existing and potential failures, prominent joints, declared special and cautionary areas, cracks on upper benches and condition of spoil piles. Highwall mapping and photography as well as basic geological data collection, enable highwall risk and operational ratings to be determined. The same rating sheets may also be completed by production personnel, but without detailed mapping.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book Proceedings 21st International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
|Pre-Driven Experimental Longwall Recovery Room Under Weak Ro||Longwall Mining-Induced Abutment Loads and Their Impacts on||Influence of Structural Stress Concentration and Structural||The NIOSH Shield Hydraulics Inspection and Evaluation of Leg||Study on Top-Coal Loss and the Optimum Drawing Interval of L||Stress Measurements for Safety Decisions in Longwall Coal||Re-Use of Rectangular Bolted Roadways in a Cover Depth > 100||Numerical Modeling of the Gob Loading Mechanism in Longwall||Deep Cover Pillar Extraction in the U.S. Coalfields||Evaluation of Pillar Recovery in Southern West Virginia||A Case History Investigation of Two Coal Bumps in the Southe||A Linear Coal Pillar Strength Formula for South African Coal||Anchorage Pull Testing for Fully Grouted Roof Bolts||Comparison of Some Aspects of Bolting Mechanisms Between Ful||Eclipse System Improves Resin Anchored Rebar Bolting||Design Considerations for Tensioned Bolts||Field Testing of the Fully Grouted Thrust Tensioned Bolts||Improvement in Pre-Tensioning of Strand Bolts in Australian||The Introduction of Roof Bolting to U.S. Underground Coal Mi||Support of Coal Mines in the United Kingdom||The Use of NDT Methods to Determine the Condition of Rockbol||Rockbolted Support of Retreat Longwall Gateroads at 1000m De||Roof Screening: Best Practices and Roof Bolting Machines||Numerical and Physical Modeling as Planning Tools for Rockbo||Stone Mine Design in Highly Fractured Rock||The Importance of Underground Stone Mine Roof Geology||Utilization of Ground-Penetrating Radar to Determine Roof Co||An Examination of the Loyalhanna Limestone's Structural||Highwall Stability in an Open Pit Stone Operation||Overview of Safety Considerations with Highwall Mining Opera||Highwall Monitoring to Combat Rockfall Accidents at Opencast||Seepage and Reinforcement Behavior of Grouting Into Slaking-||Floor Heave in Shallow Room-and-Pillar Mining||Analysis of a Stability Problem in an Underground Coal Mine||Comparison of Acoustic Emission and Stress Measurement Resul||Acoustic Scanner Analysis of Borehole Breakout to Define the||Estimating Rock Strengths Using Drilling Parameters During R||New developments with the coal mine roof rating||Application of geotechnical and geophysical parameters to im||Development of a Risk Rating System for Use in Underground C||Empirical and analytical design of large openings at a propo||Shear Mechanism for Mining-Induced Fractures Applied to Rock||Evaluating Techniques for Monitoring Rock Falls and Slope St||Developments in Sealant Support Systems for Ground Control||Stability Control of Clusters of Deep Openings Around Shaft||The Use of Pneumatic Stowing in Germany Considering Subsiden||A 3-D Semi-Analytical Method for Subsidence Prediction and S||Theory and Technology of Mining Subsidence Control by Grouti||Surface Subsidence Due to the Combined Effects of Undergroun|