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|The main objective of the research described in the paper was to determine the causes of falls of roof in South African coal mines. The south African Colliery Manager's Association and the members of the South African National Institute of Rock Engineering (SANIRE) who are employed by coal mines lent full support to the work. Fifteen major roof falls were investigated in detail and their causes established. This data was supplemented by mapping a large number of roof falls on four coal mines in less detail. The total number of recorded roof falls was 182. The data bank simulated the data bank of roof falls that resulted in fatalities in terms of the total number of falls recorded and the thickness distribution of the collapses. It was found that the causes of the falls differed for different thickness ranges of roof falls, The thin falls, classified as "Skin falls", which accounted for approximately 70% of all fatalities, were predominantly caused by ineffective joint support and excessive bolt spacing. Ineffective joint support was found to be a dominant cause of roof falls for all thickness ranges, while the influence of excessive bolt spacing diminished with increasing fall thickness. However, it remained a significant cause of roof falls even for the major falls. Burnt coal, dykes, bad mining practice, weathering and inferior materials were found to be minor causes, but nonetheless contributed to the falls. Horizontal stress was a minor cause, with increasing contribution for thicker falls. It was also found that the indicators of horizontal stress coincided with areas of reduced roof rock strength. In general, roof falls occurred in areas where the roof rock was found to be less competent in terms of rock mass rating systems. It was concluded that the Coal Mine Roof Rating (CMRR) system developed by NIOSH in the USA held promise for application in South Africa and should be investigated further.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book Proceedings 20th International Conference On Ground Control In Mining
|Hydraulic Fracturing Of Sandstone And Longwall Roof Control||Status Of Longwall Research In CSIRO||Longwall Moves At Twentymile Recovery Mesh System||Risk Assessment Of Geotechnical Factors Associated With Unde||Load And Deflection Response Of Ventilation Stoppings To Lon||The Stress And Failure Paths Followed By Coal Mine Roofs Dur||Simulated Materials Modeling And Analysis Of The Overburden||Sizing Of Final Stumps For Safer Pillar Extraction||Evaluation Of Mobile Roof Support Technologies||FDM Prediction Of A Yield Pillar Performance In Conjunction||Extraction Ratio In Thin Seams Assuring No Surface Subsidenc||Improving Roof Control At A South African Coal Mine||In-Situ Investigation Into The Causes Of Falls Of Roof In So||Failure Characteristics Of Roof Falls At An Underground Ston||Determination Of Limitation Of Roof Layer Separation (LRLS)||The Integration Of Geology And Engineering In Ground Control||Worldwide Implementation Of Continuous Miner System - Integr||Effect Of Face Advance Rates On The Characteristics Of Subsi||The Response Of A High Order Stream To Shallow Cover Longwal||SDPS For Windows: An Integrated Approach To Ground Deformati||Development Of A Remote Reading Dual-Height Telltale System||Enhanced Surface Control For Roof And Rib Support||Long Term Stability Of Mine Workings In Soft Floor Environme||Visualization Of Geostructure By Mechanical Data Logging Of||A Step Towards Understanding The Behaviour Of Wider Roadways||Research And Application Of Combined Reinforcement System||Estimation Of In-Situ Stress At Ikeshima Colliery Using AE A||Typical Complete Stress-Strain Curves Of Coal||Analysis Of Roof Bolt Systems||Effects Of Bedding Plane Sliding And Separation And Tensione||Systems Used In Coal Mining Development In Long Tendon Reinf||Determination And IT-Supported Evaluation Of Rock Mechanical||Tensioned Cable Bolts As Primary Support: Update||Determination Of Basis For The Double Use Of Rectangular Roc||Cost Preventive System To Control Unstable Roof In Main Line||Injection Techniques for Cost-effective Stabilization of Bri||An Analysis of Rock Failure Around a Deep Longwall Using Mic||Numerical Simulation on Microseismicity Due to Mining at One||Investigation of Seismicity Near Appin, NSW, and its Associa||Effects of Bolt Spacing, Bolt Length, and Roof Span on Bolt||Evaluation of Instrumented Cable and Rebar Bolts as Ground S||Application of the Coal Mining Roof Rating System in South A||Roof Instability Rating (RIR) System and Its Application at||Updating the NlOSH Support Technology Optimization Program (||Mistakes, Misconceptions, and Key Points Regarding Secondary||Non-Destructive Testing on Fully Grouted Rockbolts||Visual Recognition of the Load of Roof-Bolts by an Indicator||A New Rockbolt Axial Load Measuring Device||A New Approach to the Integrity Testing of Ground Anchorages||A Lineament Analysis Case Study of the Fola Coal Co., LLC. N||Analyses of Valley Fill Slope Stability - Three Case Studies||Modeling of Joint and Fracture Distributions in Rock Mass Be|