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|Rock reinforcement has been in widespread use and generally has been accepted in underground mining and tunneling since the 1950s. The first rock reinforcement technologies employed were mechanical anchors such as split wedges or expansion shells with 5/8-inch-diameter steel bolts. Failures occurred in weak strata which provided poor anchorage or in ground with corrosive waters. Friction rock fixtures consisting of relatively thin-walled tubes have been in use for about 15 to 20 years. While generally performing adequately, longevity problems have developed from corrosion in water bearing ground Longevity of rock reinforcement is much enhanced with grouted bolts. Portland-cement-grouted rock reinforcement has been in use since the mid-1950s, primarily in funneling and other civil engineering underground construction. Tests of decades-old installations have revealed few problems except in ground with aggressive waters. Polyester-resin-grouted rock reinforcement was introduced in the United states to musing in the late 1960s and to tunneling in the early 1970s. Experience from 30 years of resin-grouted bolt installations and field tests have identified longevity problems associated with degradation of steel reinforcing bars, but in generally unusual situations. Improvements continue in resin chemistries, packaging, corrosion protection, grout quantities, and mixing and distribution in the drilled hole to achieve long-term performance. Specific case histories cited with resin- or Portland-cement-grouted rock reinforcement longevity or performance problems, upon close examination, reveal that the causes of the problems were qualify control procedures being inadequate and not in accordance with good practice. Manufacturers' recommendations and engineering specifications, if followed in the field, and with competent inspection and supervision, would have prevented must, if not all, reported longevity or performance difficulties.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book Proceedings 19th International Conference On Ground Control In Mining
|An Approach To Identifying Geological Properties From Roof B||Field Experience Of Measuring The Acoustic Energy From A Ham||Advancements In Reflective Seismic Tomography For The Locati||Longwall Geomechanics, An Australian Perspective||Moonee Colliery: Renewing The Economic Viability Of A Mine U||Successful Application Of Hydraulic Fracturing To Control Wi||Pillar Mining And Longwalling Below Massive Roof Strata: Geo||High Capacity Tensioned Cable Bolts For Tailgate Support||Single Point And Full Scale Laboratory Testing Of Timber Cho||Optimizing Secondary Roof Support With The NIOSH Support Tec||The Use Of Cribless Tailgates In Longwall Extraction||Five Stress Factors Conducive To Bumps In Utah, USA, Coal Mi||Development Of Stress Measurement Techniques In Bump-Prone C||Coal Mine Seismicity And Bumps: Historical Case Studies And||Multi-Scale Assessment Of Coal And Gas Outbursts Based On Fr||Horizontal Stress: The Root Of All Evil?||Utilizing The ?Advance And Relieve? Method To Reduce Horizon||Regional Horizontal Surface Displacements Due To Mining Bene||Prognosis And Control Of Mining Induced Surface Subsidence A||Prediction Of Subsurface Subsidence For Longwall Mining Oper||Development Of A Statistical Technique For Assessing Sandsto||Evaluation Of Surface Subsidence Potential Along A Pipeline||Roof Monitoring In Limestone Mines-Experience With The Roof||Site Characterization For Planning Underground Stone Mines||Potential Problems Related To Mining Under Or Adjacent To Fl||Mine Planning For Longwall And Pillar Retreat Panels Subject||Optimization Of District-Wide Mine Layout In Multi-Seam Mini||Application Of Bolt Design Criteria At Galatia Mine||The Utilization Of Rockbolting Technology And Monitoring Tec||Rockbolting For Highly Stressed Roadways||Evaluation Of Measurement System For Monitoring The Stabilit||Quality Management For Grouted Rockbolts||Evaluating Anchorage Mechanisms Of Fully Encapsulated Rock B||INSTáL CableOx: A New Tensionable & Corrosion Resistant Cabl||Rock Reinforcement Longevity||Progress In The Development Of A Roof Bolt Design Methodolog||Case Studies Of Progressive Pillar Failure In Two Mines Usin||Jointing Effects On Pillar Strength||Impact Of Vertical Stress On Roadway Conditions At Dartbrook||Stepwise Support Technology For Extremely Soft Rock Roadway||Mobile Roof Supports For Pillar Retreat Mining||Three-Dimensional Simulations Of The Roof Behavior In Coal R||Roof Behavior In South African Coal Room And Pillar Panels||Extended Cut Out Distances In Continuous Miner Sections In S||Roof Control Analysis In North River Mine||Analysis Of The Seam Inclination Effect On Roof Stability||The Application Of Rock Mass Classification Principles To Co||Mining Geotechnical Benchmarking||Using The Point Load Test To Determine The Uniaxial Compress||The Influence Of Water Content On Strength Characteristic Of||Polymer Membrane Liners In Underground Coal Mines - Ground C||Applications Of Cement Grouting Method For Controlling Weak||Analysis Of Safety Aspects And Mining Practices For Effectiv|