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|Tower Colliery is a longwall mine operated by BHP Coal Illawarra Collieries, Southwest of Sydney, Australia It mines the Bulli Seam at a depth of approximately 450m. The surface topography overlying the mine consists of several steep-sided river gorges, up to 68m in depth, which run at oblique angles across a sloping terrain Apart from some light rural development, the surface land is essentially natural bushland, but is traversed by a major freeway. This crosses one of the gorges on twin, six-span, box-girder bridges, with bridge piers up to 55m in height. Consequently, a major surface subsidence monitoring program has been in place for several years now, including intensive conventional, GPS and E DM surveying, plus real-time monitoring of critical components of the bridge structure. Although the bridge and freeway are outside the conventional angle of draw' subsidence influence criteria, and have seen only negligible vertical deformation as a result of mining, there has been widespread evidence of regional horizontal deformation of the land surface, large distances away from the mining area The effect at the bridge has been well within acceptable tolerances, primarily because of the regional nature of the movements, with very little differential movement observed at the bridge piers Gorge closure and evidence of large headlands of land moving `en masse' have been observed. Horizontal movements of hundreds of millimetres have been recorded in some locations where gorge closure has been monitored. Possible explanations of these movements include one or a combination of mechanisms such as pre-mining stress relaxation. valley notch effects, valley bulging, regional joint patterns, movement toward active goaf areas, vertical gorge shearing' and shear failure of horizontal bedding planes below the surface This paper presents a case study of the regional horizontal ?subsidence displacements? measured during mining. and a discussion of the possible explanations for these phenomena|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book Proceedings 19th International Conference On Ground Control In Mining
|An Approach To Identifying Geological Properties From Roof B||Field Experience Of Measuring The Acoustic Energy From A Ham||Advancements In Reflective Seismic Tomography For The Locati||Longwall Geomechanics, An Australian Perspective||Moonee Colliery: Renewing The Economic Viability Of A Mine U||Successful Application Of Hydraulic Fracturing To Control Wi||Pillar Mining And Longwalling Below Massive Roof Strata: Geo||High Capacity Tensioned Cable Bolts For Tailgate Support||Single Point And Full Scale Laboratory Testing Of Timber Cho||Optimizing Secondary Roof Support With The NIOSH Support Tec||The Use Of Cribless Tailgates In Longwall Extraction||Five Stress Factors Conducive To Bumps In Utah, USA, Coal Mi||Development Of Stress Measurement Techniques In Bump-Prone C||Coal Mine Seismicity And Bumps: Historical Case Studies And||Multi-Scale Assessment Of Coal And Gas Outbursts Based On Fr||Horizontal Stress: The Root Of All Evil?||Utilizing The ?Advance And Relieve? Method To Reduce Horizon||Regional Horizontal Surface Displacements Due To Mining Bene||Prognosis And Control Of Mining Induced Surface Subsidence A||Prediction Of Subsurface Subsidence For Longwall Mining Oper||Development Of A Statistical Technique For Assessing Sandsto||Evaluation Of Surface Subsidence Potential Along A Pipeline||Roof Monitoring In Limestone Mines-Experience With The Roof||Site Characterization For Planning Underground Stone Mines||Potential Problems Related To Mining Under Or Adjacent To Fl||Mine Planning For Longwall And Pillar Retreat Panels Subject||Optimization Of District-Wide Mine Layout In Multi-Seam Mini||Application Of Bolt Design Criteria At Galatia Mine||The Utilization Of Rockbolting Technology And Monitoring Tec||Rockbolting For Highly Stressed Roadways||Evaluation Of Measurement System For Monitoring The Stabilit||Quality Management For Grouted Rockbolts||Evaluating Anchorage Mechanisms Of Fully Encapsulated Rock B||INSTáL CableOx: A New Tensionable & Corrosion Resistant Cabl||Rock Reinforcement Longevity||Progress In The Development Of A Roof Bolt Design Methodolog||Case Studies Of Progressive Pillar Failure In Two Mines Usin||Jointing Effects On Pillar Strength||Impact Of Vertical Stress On Roadway Conditions At Dartbrook||Stepwise Support Technology For Extremely Soft Rock Roadway||Mobile Roof Supports For Pillar Retreat Mining||Three-Dimensional Simulations Of The Roof Behavior In Coal R||Roof Behavior In South African Coal Room And Pillar Panels||Extended Cut Out Distances In Continuous Miner Sections In S||Roof Control Analysis In North River Mine||Analysis Of The Seam Inclination Effect On Roof Stability||The Application Of Rock Mass Classification Principles To Co||Mining Geotechnical Benchmarking||Using The Point Load Test To Determine The Uniaxial Compress||The Influence Of Water Content On Strength Characteristic Of||Polymer Membrane Liners In Underground Coal Mines - Ground C||Applications Of Cement Grouting Method For Controlling Weak||Analysis Of Safety Aspects And Mining Practices For Effectiv|