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|Skin failures of roof and rib in underground coal mines continue to be a significant safety hazard for mine workers. Skin failures do not usually involve failure of the support systems but result from rock or coal spalling from between the support elements. For instance in 1997, over 800 miners were injured by roof and rib falls, of which 98 pet were the result of skin failures. Also, nearly 80 pct of the roof and rib failure injuries occurred at or near the working faces in development sections. The face area is a zone where the potential for skin failure accidents and injuries and roof and rib failures, in general, is high because of mining activity, ground readjustment due to changing stress conditions, and the higher exposure of mine workers. In addition, failures occur where the roof and rib are unsupported. This paper features a review of the roof and rib accident statistics resulting from skin failure, highlighting the incidences by average days lost, in-mine location, state, MSHA District, and worker activity at the time of injury. A detailed analysis of recent fatalities caused by skin failure is included. Also discussed are the causes of roof and rib skin failures, current methods and support materials for skin surface control, as well as a historical literature review of skin failures and control methods.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book Proceedings - 18th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
|Pillar Collapse at Welgedacht Colliery, South Africa: A Case||Causes of Massive Directional Roof Falls in Room and Pillar||Catastrophic Collapse Of Highwall Web Pillars And Preventati||Mine Panel Collapse - Two Case Studies||Roof Geology Mapping In Underground Coal Mines||Electromagnetic Seam Wave Mapping Of Roof Rock Conditions Ac||Geological Conditions At Continuous Miner Sections; Examples||The Role Of Engineering And Geology In Analyzing Ground Cont||The Development And Use Of Risk Assessment Techniques To Ass||Time-Dependent Analysis Of Underground Opening Stability||Tekflex As A Sprayon Screen Replacement In An Underground Ha||Tunnel Deformation Monitoring "Action Levels" In Coal Mines||Skin Failure Of Roof And Rib In Underground Coal Mines||Application Of Polyurethane Injection For Rehabilitation Of||Design Considerations For Bump-Prone Longwall Mines||Design Methodology For Standing Secondary Roof Support In Lo||Modern Shield Technology: Better Than Ever But Still Not Per||Shield Monitoring To Forecast Severe Face Weightings At The||Monitoring Of Longwall Seal Behaviour For Permeability And S||Ground Control In South African Coal Mines - A U.S. Perspect||Rock Mechanics Issues In The Trona Patch||Highwall Augering In Ultra-Thick Western Coal Reserves: Uniq||Seismic Events Due To Underground Mining Activities||Control Technology For Roof Drill Operators||Resin Annulus Size Effects On Rebar Bolt Pull Strength And R||Roof Bolt Response To Shear Stress: Laboratory Analysis||Laboratory Study Of Shear Loading And Bolt Load Transfer Mec||Analysis Of Cable Bolt Performance Using Numerical Modeling||Roof Bolting Application In Longwall Mining In Indonesia And||Ground Control Design For Multiple Seam Mining Using Finite||Pillar Design Issues For Underground Stone Mines||Calibration Of The Analysis Of Longwall Pillar Stability (AL||Mine Convergence When Using Mobile Roof Supports In Pillar R||The Advance And Relieve Mining Method: A Horizontal Stress C||Localized Horizontal Stress And Its Effect On Ground Control||Prediction And Control Of Surface Subsidence Over Abandoned||Effects Of Mining On Underground Infrastructures In The Germ||Ground Deformation In The Case Of Underground Mining Of Thic||Prevention Of Time-Dependent Subsidence By Elimination Of Gr|