Rock Mass Classification Applied to Subsidence Over High Extraction Coal Mines

Siekmeier, J. A.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 9
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1986
The thickness of the laminated beam modeled in this study is based on bridging potential and TDR measurements. The laminated beam stiffness is based on the effective stiffness of an equivalent transformed section. The maximum deflection of this near-surface laminated beam is compared with the maximum measured surface subsidence. The spreadsheet provides a rational technique to graphically display the character of the overburden and potentially allows prediction of a subsidence factor based on boring logs and the proposed mine plan. The U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines (Bureau), utilizes a commercially available computer spreadsheet program in combination with a modified version of Bieniawski's Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system to characterize the geology overlying high extraction coal mines. The spreadsheet program calculates a RMR for each bed based on the lithology, thickness, and engineering properties, which are determined from boring logs and laboratory tests. Once the RMR is calculated the spreadsheet has two major functions. First, the spreadsheet calculates values used to graphically represent the character of each individual bed in the overburden. It calculates an in situ deformation modulus using an empirical rela¬tionship between the modulus and the RMR and then uses this effective modulus along with additional parameters that are based on mine geometry to calculate the bending stiffness and bridging potential for each bed. Second, the spreadsheet creates a transformed section that allows groups of beds to be modeled as an elastic beam. It then calculates a bridging potential for the entire rock mass. The bridging potential of the rock mass is a single value that takes into account both the geology of the overburden and the geometry of the mine. It seems reasonable that there would be a strong correlation between the bridging potential, the overburden response to high extraction mining, and the subsidence ratio. The results presented in this paper focus on the relationship between the bridging potential of individual beds and the deformation measured using Time Domain Reflectometry (TOR). Subsurface displacements measured over seven high extraction coal mines in southern Illinois were correlated with the bed stiffness and bridging potential profiles. Based on these correlations it was evident that the process of caving and subsidence over these high extraction mines involved momentary bridging by individual beds or groups of beds and the ultimate development of a laminated beam near the surface.
Full Article Download:
(1930 kb)