Three-Dimensional Ground Movements During Dynamic Subsidence of a Longwall Mine in Illinois

Van Roosendaal, Dan J.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 9
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1986
A closely spaced grid of survey points was installed over the tensile zone of a longwall panel in southern Illinois and monitored daily during subsidence to document the complex ground-surface movements associated with dynamic subsidence. Vertical and horizontal displacements were used to calculate maximum tilts and principal strains within the grid. The dynamic nature of subsidence is made evident by changes in both the direction and magnitude of maximum tilts and principal strains. The maximum tilt (smax) of 0.036 and maximum tensile strain (Emax) of 0.027 were measured after subsidence and were oriented transverse to the longwall panel. Observations of surface fracturing were correlated with strain determinations to estimate a surface strain at incipient cracking (E;) of 0.006 to 0.009. Using shallow inclinometers, a linear variation of horizontal displacement with respect to depth was observed, suggesting a neutral┬Čaxis bending mechanism for near-surface deformation. Horizontal displacements transverse to the longwall panel reduce to zero at a depth of 40 feet. A linear relationship between strain and curvature was used to estimate ground-surface curvatures associated with Emax (0.00068 ft-1) and E; (0.00015 to 0.00023 ft-1). The curvature estimates are consistent with published results.
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