Characteristics of Overburden Deformation Due to Longwall Mining

Ingram, David K.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 10
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1986
The objective of this U.S. Bureau of Mines investigation was to characterize overburden response due to longwall mining. Subsurface strata and surface deformations were monitored during the mining of two adjacent, 900 ft wide longwall panels in southeastern Ohio. The panels were separated by a five entry, four pillar system (about 350 ft wide). The overburden thickness in the study area ranged from 214 to 280 ft, and the extraction thickness averaged 70 in. To delineate the geology of the overburden, six coreholes were drilled along a profile line extending across the two longwall panels. Multi-point borehole extensometers (MPBX) with eight-anchors were installed in six boreholes to measure subsurface displacements. The MPBX units were continuously monitored using a data logger. During the mining of the first panel, displacement occurred in a radiating pattern beginning just above the extracted area in the center of the panel and extending upward and outward towards the surface and margins of the panel. Overburden deformation did not project over the gate road entries. During the mining of the second panel, the MPBX's showed almost simultaneous displacement, indicating that the overburden began to move as a whole unit. Again, overburden deformation was confined to the immediate panel area. At both panels, overburden movement began when the longwall face was approximately 55 ft beyond the line of MPBX boreholes. Moreover, all ground movement was complete when the longwall face was approximately 200 ft beyond the line of MPBX boreholes. This paper discusses the results of the study and identifies the characteristics of overburden deformation.
Full Article Download:
(2719 kb)