Control Of Surface Movements Above Active Coal Mines In Appalachia

Jarosz, A.
Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration
Pages: 12
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1986
The surface manifestation of underground mining usually entails five distinct types of surface movements, which can affect or damage surface structures, facilities and renewable resources. These movements developing at the surface can be described by (Bell, 1975; Bhattacharya and Singh, 1984): - vertical displacement, i.e. subsidence, - horizontal displacements, - slope or tilt, i.e. the derivative of the vertical displacement with respect to the horizontal distance, - curvature, i.e. the second derivative of the vertical displacement with respect to the horizontal distance, and, - horizontal strain, i.e. the derivative of the horizontal displacement with respect to the horizontal distance.
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