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|The engineering of a support system is driven largely by economics. The goal is to provide effective support at minimal cost. For this reason, wood has been extensively used as a support material for centuries. The cost of timber for mining applications has risen by more than 50% in the past 5 years and is likely to continue to increase as the supply diminishes and further environmental restrictions are placed on timber harvesting. The increased cost and lack of high strength wood in the Western United States has provided incentives to improve the utilization of wood and to develop alternative support materials. This U.S. Bureau of Mines' (USBM) report discusses the basic engineering requirements for the application of various materials for supplemental roof support construction and provides an overview of support systems that use materials other than wood. A comparison of support performance and cost for various material constructions is made to assist the mine operator in support selection. The scope of materials discussed in the report include: (1) conventional mine timber loaded perpendicular to the grain, (2) parallel to the grain timber loading, (3) steel fiber reinforced and air entrained concrete, (4) steel, (5) granular fill materials, and (6) combinations of these as composite support structures. The range of support systems analyzed include wood and concrete cribs, concrete columns and props, steel beams, friction props, and several novel support concepts.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
|Cable Bolting - Potential Applications For Variable Strata C||Evaluation Of Support Performance In A Highly Stressed Mine||Operational Experience With FLEXIBOLT Systems In Australian||Roofbolting In The Cape Breton Development Corporation'||Some Factors Influencing Stability Of Longwall Gateroad||Design Of Roadway Support Using A Strain Softening Model||Automation Of A Progressive Failure Procedure For Analysis O||The Massive Collapse Of Coal Pillars - Case Histories From T||Time Dependent Strength Of Coal Strata For Long-Term Pillar||Yield Pillar Behavior At Jim Walter No. 7 Mine Stress And St||A Comparison Of Overburden Response Due To Longwall Mining||Longwall Ground Behavior Characteristics In The Illinois Coa||Cavability Study Of A Competent Roof - A Case Study||Roof Pressure Monitoring Using The Integrated Longwalt Autom||Longwall Production, Maintenance, And Roof Control System||The Design And Selection Of Powered Supports For Application||Tailgate Support Practice In U.S. Longwall Mines - A Survey||Influence Of Support Capacity And Geometry On Tailgate Suppo||Innovative Concept In Tailgate Entry Support: Elimination Of||Resin-Grouted Cables For Longwall Tailgate Support Stability||Tailgate Roadway Convergence: A Key Indicator Of Potential G||Assessment Of Wood And Alternative Materials For Supplementa||Experience With The Boundary Element Method Of Numerical Mod||The Fault At The End Of The Tunnel||Microseismic Monitoring In The Sydney Coalfield||Realistic Design Of Ground Control Based On Geotechnical Dat||Underground High Resolution Seismic Method As A Low Cost Alt||Pillarless Longwall Mining For Multiple Seams||Stable Entry Design In A Multi-Seam Environment||Evaluating Roof Control In Underground Coal Mines With The C||Hazard Mapping Combining Geostatistical Modeling Of Coal Min||Stereological Sampling And Analysis For Characterizing Disco||Determining Horizontal Stress Direction Using The Stress Map||Stability And Stress Evaluation In Mines Using In-Seam Seism||Hydrogeologic Effects Of Subsidence At A Longwall Mine In Th||Monitoring Railroad Response To Mining Subsidence And Assess||Study On The High-Pressure Grouting Of The Overburden For Su|