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|An investigation was performed to determine the sequence of events which caused the 1987 surface subsidence and related damage to several homes in Walker County, Alabama, USA (see Figure 1). Surface affects compared to mine maps indicated the subsidence to be mine related. However, two coal seams had been worked under this area. The upper seam, the American seam ranged from 250 to 280 feet beneath the surface in the area in question. It was mined-out before 1955 by room-and-pillar method leaving in place narrow-long pillars to support the overburden strata, and abandoned in 1955. The lower seam, the Mary Lee seam, ranged from 650 to 700 feet beneath the surface. The Mary Lee seam had been abandoned in 1966 and subsequently became flooded. The dewatering of the Mary Lee seam workings in 1986 caused the submerged pillars to be exposed to the atmosphere. Due to multiple seam mining and the fact that workings had been inundated then dewatered, a subsurface investigation ensued to determine the sequence and ultimate cause of surface subsidence. Core sample tests with fracture analysis in conjunction with "down-the-hole" TV camera inspections provided necessary information to determine that the subsidence started in the lower seam and progressed through the upper coal seam to the surface. Evidence from the investigation program established that dewatering of the lower seam workings caused the marginally stable support pillars and the roof to collapse. This failure triggered additional subsidence in the upper seam which broadened the area of the influence at the surface.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book 11th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining Proceedings (ICGCM) 11th
|Assessment Of Applicability Of Strength Criteria For Rock An||A Method For Establishing Site Specific Coal Pillar Design G||Strata Mechanics Of Pillar Extraction Goaf Edges||Rock Mass Classification As An Aid To Estimating The Strengt||A Study On Stress Distribution And Reasonable Size Of Coal P||Evaluating Coal Pillar Mechanics Through Field Measurements||Critical Appraisal Of Pillar Design As Required By Coal Mine||Sidewall Fracturing In Coal Room And Pillar And Pillar Extra||Design Of Yield Pillars In The Southern Coal Field Of New So||Pillar Design In Bump-Prone Deep Western U.S. Coal Mines||Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Structural Stability Analysis||Scale Model Studies To Investigate The Effects Of Various St||Historical Perspective And Future Projection Of Longwall Min||Analysis Of Longwell Shields And Their Interaction With Surr||In-Situ Performance Analysis Of Immediate Forward Support (I||Australian Longwall Geomechanics - A Recent Study||Strata Support Interaction On A Powered Support Longwall Fac||Geotechnical Constraints On A 6 M Single Pass Longwall||Prediction Of Longwall Support Loading At Southern Colliery,||Pressure Distribution Of 2-Leg Shield Supports||A Simple Finite Element Model For Predicting The Behaviour O||Surface And Borehole Microseismic Monitoring Of Longwall Fac||Rigid Or Yielding Roof Bolts: At The Face Or Away From The F||An Assessment Of Rockbolting In Geologically Disturbed Mine||Load Transfer Mechanisms In Reinforcing Tendons||Innovative Rock Reinforcement Hardware||Innovative Ground Support System||A New Rock Bolting Concept For Underground Roadways||Design Considerations For Cable Truss Secondary Supports In||Influence Of Bolts On Discontinuities And Yielding Rock - Co||Monitoring Indices For The Support And Surrounding Strata Sy||Deformation Of Retreat Gatroad In Interpanel-Pillar System||Optimisation Of Reinforcement Design Of Coal Mine Roadways||How To Cope With Cutter Roof Problem||Horizontal Stress Control In Underground Coal Mines||A Study Of Floor Heave In The Mines Of The Southern Coalfiel||Ground Control Hazard Analysis In Multi-Seem Mining||Convergence And Load Measurements In An Underground Mine In||Detailed Underground Measurements Of Roof Deflection And Bed||Subsurface Fracture Development Due To Longwall Mining And I||Characterization Of Overburden Response To Longwall Mining I||Continuous Monitoring Of Mechanised Breaker Line Supports To||Numerical Modelling Of A Monitored Site In An Underground Co||Reformation Of The Hydraulic Stowing Mining Method||A Study On The High-Water Solidifying Materials For Gob-Alon||Geological Sensing - The Key To Increasing Miner Safety||Cemented Backfill In Two Italian Massive Orebodies||A Possible Alternative To Hardwood Chock Pieces||Ground Control Techniques Utilizing Polymer Grid Structures||Application Of DDM To Some Rock Pressure Problems In Japanes||Evaluation Of The Strength Behaviour Of Monolithic Packs||Probabilistic Stability Analysis Of Embankments And Slopes||Application Of Tailing Sand And Water As Backfill Material I||Subsidence Prediction From The Beginning - Collie Coal Basin||Mining Subsidence Of An Urban Area In Ipswich, Queensland||Investigation Of Subsidence Event Over Multiple Seam Mining||Classification Of Mine-Related Subsidence East Of Mississipp||Influence Of The Sloping Of Ground Surfaces On Mine Subsiden||Effects Of Subsidence On Steep Topography And Cliff Lines||The Effectiveness Of Interpanel Pillars In The Control Of Su||Cross Well Acoustic Tomography To Locate Abandoned Undergrou||Three Dimensional Numerical Modelling Of Effects Of Subsiden||A Comprehensive Computer Model For Predicting Dynamic Subsid||Development Of Void Diffusion Models To Predict Subsidence D||Application Of A Simplified Three-Dimensional Roof-Pillar-Fl||A Design Approach For A Swelling Rock In An Underground Mine||Study Of The Impact Of Mining Under Massive Roof At Datong C||Weak Claystone Floors And Their Implications To Pillar Desig||A Method For Determination Of Strength Of Coal Mass||A Study On Application Of Comprehensive Rock Mechanical Prop||The Mechanical Property Of Coal Containing Gas||The Rheological Fracture Properties And Outburst Mechanism O||Investigation And Analyses Of Sudden Outbursts Of Gas During||A Casting Method For Artificial Rock Specimens||Progress In The Knowledge Of Granite Cutting With Diamond Wi||A Simple Method Of Measuring Rock Fracture Toughness Using T||Mine Stability Evaluation From Microseismic Activity||The Response Of Massive Structures Inferred From Tidal Tilt||Optimization Of Bench Blast Design With The Aid Of Computer||The Directional Drill Monitor For Long Hole Gas Drainage In||Effect Of Drilling Fluid Composition On Penetration Rate||Prediction Of Rock Cutting Performance Using Fracture Mechan||Investigation Into Cutting Characteristics Of Indian Coal Se||Prediction Of Shearer Cutting Performance||Sub-Surface Cracks Due To Disc Cutter Spacing For Improved R|