The Stress Measurement and Underground Engineering
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Jan 1, 1987
There are many methods developed for measuring the crustal stress in China. Among them only two methods have been adopted in practice, i.e., overcoring method (for which the sensors include: Piezo-magnetic stress gauge, steel-ring strain cell, 3-dimensional hollow-inclusion stress ,gauge, and Leeman's-like stress gauge) and hydraulic fracturing method. For the former method, one of those sensors is installed in a borehole, 36 mm in diameter, then prestressed, and finally overcored with a drill bit of 130 mm in diameter. After that the deformation of the borehole wall is measured, from which the in-situ stresses are determined. In order to avoid the errors resulting from the difference in elastic modulus for various kinds of rocks as well as from the installment of the cells, we have developed a technique to calibrate the sensor on-spot using a confining pressure calibrator and produced a very good result. For the later method, the measurements are achieved by isolating a certain section of a borehole and then injecting water to pressurize it till a tensile break is induced. It is identical to the typical technology used internationally. For many years, through field observations and a large number of laboratory experiments, we believe that the most efficient way of stress measurement for engineering purposes is the overcoring method using Piezo-magnetic stress gauge. It is characterized by stable and reliable measurement values, high accuracy and high adaptability. Taking the measurements in the intact rock mass as an example, the measured stress magnitudes are within accuracies of 8% and the errors in orientation are about 5 degrees. It can even be used perfectly in deep water. Up to now, we have performed in-situ stress measurements in more than 70 sites and obtain more than one thousand sets of data. The deepest depth used in the overcoring method is 80 m in vertical borehole and 780 m in tunnels.