Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Coal Pillar Bumps at the 9-Right Section of the Olga Mine
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Jan 1, 1987
The Bureau of Mines conducted research at the 9-Right Section of the Olga Mine to determine the cause of bumps and aid in the development of appropriate control techniques. The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors which affect the occurrence of bumps at the Olga Mine. These factors have been broken down into two categories, in situ and mining related. The in situ factors include those conditions which exist prior to mining, such as variations in lithology and overburden, presence of jointing, the composition and the physical properties of the rock, and the original stress field existing in the coalbed and adjacent strata. The mining factors include the mining sequence, changes in stress in the coalbed and adjacent strata during mining, rates of convergence, and the pattern of failure of the coal and adjacent strata. The factors which appeared to have the greatest effect on bumping were the overburden, the lithology of the roof and floor rock and the physical properties of the rock. The roof rock is generally a massive, stiff sandstone which does not break until coal pillar extraction is complete. The immediate floor is a strong shale which generally grades into siltstone and then into sandstone. The overburden at 9-Right ranged from 990 to 1,600 ft. Secondary factors appeared to be the in situ (pre-mining) stress and the mining sequence. When barrier pillars were split., pressures measured in hydraulic cells (Borehole platen flatjacks) located in those barriers showed large pressure increases, and the incidence of bumps increased, especially when the barriers were near old gob areas. The pillar extraction system used at Olga, where three rows of pillars are mined concurrently, appears to reduce pillar loads at the face areas, thereby reducing the exposure of men and equipment to the risks of bumps during mining operations. The horizontal components of in situ stresses at Olga were found to be nearly the same as those at 5 other mines in southern WV, where humps were not common, so it appears that horizontal in situ stress alone is not a major influence on bumping at the Olga Mine.