Effect of High Horizontal Stress on Coal Mine Entry Intersection Stability

Hanna, K.
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Pages: 16
Publication Date: Jan 1, 1986
This manuscript describes an extensive ground control study at the Inland Steel No. 2 Mine near McLeansboro, IL, conducted by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Mines (USEM) in cooperation with Inland Steel Coal Co. The mine experiences severe ground control problem primarily due to high horizontal stress, particularly at entry intersections. Mine experience has shown that reorienting mine entries, modifying the bolting pattern, and altering the mining sequence are effective in reducing the severity of roof falls and out-of-seam dilution. However, the frequency of roof falls has not been significantly reduced. This research project was designed to provide a thorough explanation of the intersection failure mechanism through combined analyses of company in-mine experience and Bureau field measurements. Stresses and deformations were monitored in a four-way intersection during all stages of development and were related to site observations and theoretical analyses. The results of the combined analyses indicate that high horizontal stress is the predominant factor contributing to intersection roof falls in the Inland Steel No. 2 Mine. The horizontal stress induces shear zones to form along the outby 1 ribs, causing the immediate roof layer to detach 1 and behave as a cantilever beam oriented diagonally across the intersection and parallel to i the maximum horizontal principal stress. As the shear zone progresses upward, roof layers successively detach and fail, forming a dome-type roof fall.
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