How to Design an Efficient Roof Bolting Plan Based on Simple In-Mine Measurements
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Jan 1, 1986
The techniques developed should provide a useful tool, not only during the initial formulation of a suitable bolting plan for a new section, but also for periodic check¬ing on the utilization factor of hardware installed in the roof. Indications are that with present practice, utilization seldom exceeds 507.. Retro-fittable bolter equipment now available (FCBS?) allows doubling of the utilization factor in many cases. We are also introducing a computer pro¬gram based on the material outlined in this paper. This program can save a great deal of time in examining the real effect of implementing alternate bolting plans or using different installation techniques. It allows fine-tuning of bolt lengths, spacing and installation tension to mini¬mize roof support cost, while maximizing safe life of the mine opening. We have developed a procedure which allows easy, site-specific quantification of the need for reinforcement of a mine roof. The concept is based on the forma¬tion of a direct link between theory and empirical data to custom-fit each mine section. In its simplest form, the proce¬dure requires only recording of roof bolt torques in a sample working place (16 to 25 bolts) several times during the first week or so after initial bolting. The way in which the torque pattern changes during this time can reveal whether or not the bolts carry enough tension to maintain stability in that specific roof. From the same data, the nature of the anchorage horizon is derived. Specifically, shale or limestone can be distinguished from sandstone. If the procedure is repeated a few times (within the same mine section) with different bolt installation tensions, we can numerically characterize the roof in terms of one single value: an "effective angle of internal friction". This number can then serve to calculate trade-offs in bolting plan design, such as bolt length, bolt spacing and optimum bolt tension. Additional refinement is possible if a sagmeter is installed in the sample work¬ing place being monitored and if bolt anchorage capacity is determined. The lat¬ter can be done automatically on each bolt as it is being installed, using a system we developed and patented. Alternately, a number of pull tests could be performed. Using the sagmeter, bolt torque and anchor¬age data, it is possible to project the safe life of the supported opening. The details of the procedures described apply specifically to tensioned roof bolting, but a brief discussion paints the way for a similar analysis of full-column resin bolting also.