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|An estimated 49 billion tons or 29 percent, of the coal reserve base to a depth of 1,000 feet in the eastern United States fall in the 28- to 42-inch range. Often left out as a consequence of selective mining, it is a paramarginal source that will become increasingly important. At present, all active thin seam longwalls are located in the Eastern Coal Province, and a number of operations have been suspended due to the erosion of the market for metallurgical coal. Extensive premining studies, appropriate mine planning, reliable equipment that is designed with ergonomics in mind, adequate roof support, intensive training, and strong face discipline are the ingredients that provided a measure of consistency in production for the last 10 to 16 years, particularly in the Pennsylvania bituminous coalfield where single drum shearers dominate. Plows, which were found to be very productive in suitable strata in Europe, are used in the Pocahontas field. Low seam four- and six-legged shields have been introduced recently. The future holds automation at progressive levels. The first step is batch control with the benefits of quickly applied roof support and reduction of workmen exposure to environmental hazards.|
Additional chapters/articles from the SME-ICGCM book Proceedings Of The 1st Annual Conference On Ground Control In Mining
|Stress And Stability In Coal Ribsides And Pillars||Improved Design Of Coal Pillars For U.S. Mining Conditions||Review Of Pillar Design Equations Including The Effects Of C||Abutment Pillar "Notching" Improves Abutment Tunnel Roof Con||The Influence Of Certain Geologic And Geotechnical Factors O||Considerations Of Gas Outbursts In Using Dome Salt Mines For||An Overview Of Bureau Of Mines Ground Control Research||Stability Behaviour Of Coal Mining Tunnels With Different Su||Strata Disturbance Prediction For Mining Beneath Surface Wat||Monitoring For The Evaluation Of The Stability Of Undergroun||Controlled Thrust And Torque Placement Of Mechanical Anchor||Roklok Polyurethane Binder: A Chemical Injection System For||Resupporting High Roof Falls||A New Combination Friction-Suspension Support System Scott||Inorganic Cement Grouted Bolt System||Development Of A Resin Point Anchor||An Engineering Analysis Of "Squeeze" Failure Of Pillars In T||Ground Control In Multiple Seam Mining||Applications Of Reflection Seismics To Mapping Coal Seam Str||The Use Of Geologic Modeling In The Prediction Of Adverse Ro||Design Of Shield Supports For The U.S. Coal Mining Industry||Longwall Mining Of Thin Seams||Support Selection For The Multi-Lift Mining Method||Design And Operation Of Powered And Entry Supports||Evaluation Of Existing Predictive Methods For Mine Subsidenc||A Study Of Longwall Subsidence In The Appalachian Coal Regio||Subsidence Studies In Thick And Steep Coal Seam Mining|