Applications Of Reflection Seismics To Mapping Coal Seam Structure And Discontinuities
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Jan 1, 1981
As a means of demonstrating the effectiveness of reflection seismology in determining continuity of coal seams, three U. S. field projects are reviewed. The three projects involve coals of varied thickness (2-14m) and age (Pennsylvanian to Eocene) from three coal areas of the U. S. (Pennsylvania, Wyoming, and Washington). Each project also employed its own particular seismic technique, recording system, and seismic energy source although all are considered state-of-the-art, high resolution, digital seismic surveys. Project 1 (thin, Pennsylvania coal) sought detection of sand channels using dynamite and standard in-line (2-D) seismic technique. Project 2 (thick, Wyoming underground coal gasification) involved a gas-explosion (Dinoseis) source with areal (3-D) acquisition methods. Project 3 (thick, Washington underground coal gasification) employed a shotgun-type source and standard in- line methods. Data processing was handled by different contractors for each project. Each project was successful in accomplishing its own particular objective; however, data quality and interpretation seem to be more a function of thickness of the target seam, complexity of the overburden, and processing contractor than a seismic source, acquisition scheme (2-D versus 3-D), or recording instrumentation.