Development Of A Resin Point Anchor
Organization: International Conference on Ground Control in Mining
Jan 1, 1981
The United States Coal Mining Indus- try had the opportunity to greatly improve their roof control techniques during the nineteen seventies by the use of fully grouted resin roof bolts. This new tool was first approved for underground coal mines by M.S.H.A. ten years ago and during the next decade has been perfected to meet many problems previously thought to be unsolveable. The initial approved cartridge was very similar to the ones used in Europe in the nineteen sixties and since then has undergone a great deal of modification for our mines. These refinements in cartridge construction have been obtained by the close cooperation of resin manufacturers with mining personnel in perfecting pro- ducts customized to particular needs. This type of continuing program naturally necessitates a responsibility upon the resin anchor manufacturer to maintain a competant technical department. These roof control technicians by constant exposure to many of the most demanding underground problems, have developed through the years into leaders in successful applications. Today, Celtite has over twenty technically trained underground technicians with an accumulation of over one hundred years experience in resin anchors. Our documented technical reports are in excess of five thousand, involving over six hundred mines representing every major coal mining area in most mineable seams. This department has been the implement used to work with our research and development people in perfecting a continual line of improved resin anchors. This program has been a significant factor in leading the resin anchor industry into a position where approximately one third of the 1980 under- ground coal production used the fully grouted system. However, as gratifying as this accomplishment is, our experience has lead us to believe that there is an additional demand for a roof control system capable of combining the mechanical bolts ability to apply tension with resins proven superiority in anchoring. A significant number mines visited during the last decade had problems that we believed could be better answered by applying tension rather than the fully grouted approach. In most in- stances, their current mechanical installations were doing an adequate job until anchor slippage occured. Fully grouted systems solved this bleed-off problem. However, an acceptable number of falls still occured. In these some- what unique areas which we believe may amount to as much as fifteen percent of the total bolt installations, the need for improved anchors was a necessity. In developing this program we listed the ultimate requirements necessary for both the bolt and the anchor. These are for the bolt: A. Have one end manufactured so it can be grouted to the mine roof with polyester resin, obtaining a variable length from 12" to 36". B. Have a mechanism which allows the operator to tension the roof from zero to 10,000 psi. This mechanism should indicate if the roof is in compression and the bolt in tension. C. Have a mechanism which allows the operator to thoroughly mix the resin. D. The head of the bolt should not extend below the roof line any more than a normal mechanical bolt. E. Not require any extra tools for installation. F. Be bendable for use in low seam coal. G. Be durable and inexpensive. The ultimate point anchor resin should have the following characteristics: A. Have a mix and gel cycle which would compete with a mechanical bolt for speed of installation. B. Have a pull out strength in excess of a normal 5/8" mechanical bolt.