Organization: Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

Pages: 4

Publication Date:
Jan 1, 2009

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Abstract

Industrial grinding machines used in the mineral processing industries are mostly of the tumbling mill type. These mills exist in various types: ball, rod, pebble, autogenous, and semi-autogenous. Balls and rods are traditionally media shapes used in the tumbling mills. In resent years, as an alternative to balls, grinding charges with various shapes are being used. Cylpebs are slightly tapered cylindrical grinding charges with length equaling diameter, and all the edges being radiused. Cylpebs of equal diameter and length have 50% greater surface area and 45% greater weight than balls of the same material. In addition, they have 9% higher bulk density than steel balls, or 12% higher bulk density than cast balls. An important advantage of cylpebs over balls is that cylpebs produce narrower granulometric distribution due to their shapes. However, some discrepancies were found in the literature regarding the milling performance of cylpebs in comparison with balls (Chi, 2004). In recent studies, Chi (2004) has provided detailed information on cylpebs and has compared these to balls in relation to media mass, size distribution, surface area, and input specific energy. Ipek (2006) has investigated the effects of cylpebs and balls with equal mass and surface area on the breakage rate of quartz, using cylpebs and balls separately. Similarly, Lameck and Moys (2006) have investigated the effects of balls and worn balls on breakage rate of material using worn balls as grinding environment. However, no study has attempted to investigate the effects of grinding environment other than balls on the brekage distribution. As indicated by Prasher (1987), the breakage distribution function is independent of the following variables in ball mills: hold-up (Mika et al., 1967; Kelsall et al. 1969), mill speed and ball load (Herbst and Fuerstenau, 1972), media load and ball density (Kelsall et al., 1973), mill diameter (Malghan and Fuerstenau, 1976), and powder charge (Shoji et al. 1980). The aim of the present paper is to compare the effects of cylpebs and balls on the breakage distribution function of quartz with respect to same mass and same surface area. BACKGROUND Comminution as a rate process is called kinetic approach. Studies on the kinetic approach are reviewed by Oner (2001). Oner states that grinding kinetics are based on studies by Kolmogorov in 1941 and that Robert (1950) is the first to suggest this approach. Later, Melzak, Loeveday, and Reid have improved the grinding kinetics equation; and, Austin and Lynch have conducted two basic studies on the analytical solutions of these equations. Considering the results of studies comparing the size reduction mechanisms, it has been accepted that breakage constitutes of two operations. These two basic operations, first defined by Epstein (1948), are those of selection of material for breakage and the distribution of breakage material to particle sizes smaller than the initial size (Lynch, 1977). Epstein defined the two operations as: ? Pn(y), the probability of breakage of a particle size in the nth step of the breakage process. ? F(x,y), the cumulative distributions by weight of particles of size x |

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