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|Coal preparation plants play an important role in modern society by providing high quality feeds for coal-fired utilities, industrial boilers and metallurgical coke facilities. Unfortunately, field data indicate that preparation plants are often not operated under optimum conditions, resulting in lower productivity and lost profits. In many cases, this shortcoming can be attributed to a failure by plant operators (i) to recognize the importance of correctly adjusting plant operating conditions to accommodate requirements dictated by coal sales agreements within different coal markets and (ii) to properly account for variations in product moisture with particle size across different plant circuits. This paper discusses the important influence of moisture constraints on preparation plant optimization and provides a case study to illustrate the potential gains that can be realized via proper understanding of plant moisture control.|