A Hybrid Location Methodology
Organization: The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Jan 1, 2005
The aim of the hybrid location method is to improve seismic event locations by reducing the effects of errors in the wave velocity of ray paths between each event and each recording site. We report on further enhancements made to the hybrid location algorithm, which is based on the double-difference method developed by Spottiswoode and Milev1and Waldhauser and Ellsworth2. The term ?double-difference? refers to the residuals between the observed and theoretical travel-time differences and are obtained using either picked arrival times or various measures of time differences obtained from waveform pairs. These residuals are minimized for pairs of earthquakes at each station while linking together all observed event-station pairs. An important enhancement is that the double-difference term uses the median arrival time residuals to reduce the effect of outliers on the system of equations. In addition, the hybrid locations are further constrained by considering events of known locations, in this case along lines of development blasts. We relocated some 20 000 previously located seismic events in the Driefontein 5E area; 5 800 of these events were considered to have been development blasts and we constrained their locations to lie on the straight lines joining about 2 150 survey pegs from the mine?s database. Relocated events were shown to distribute more closely around advancing faces than had been the case before relocation. Wave velocities from the development blasts show evidence of anisotropy.