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|Background: A cross-sectional study was conducted in November2001 to establish the prevalence rates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea) in a coalmining town in Mpumalanga. Methods: 155 adults were recruited (79 males and 76 females), by holding community meetings, and by door-to-door recruitment. Saliva and urine specimens were collected for the analysis of HIV and STI prevalence, respectively. Results: The mean age for males was 31.35 years (min = 19 yrs and max = 50 yrs) and the mean age of the female participants was31.90 years (min = 17 yrs, max = 49 yrs). The prevalence of HIV was found to be 22.78% [95% CI (14.09?33.59)] in the males vs. 47.37%[95% CI (35.79?55.16)] in the females, [p = 0.001, OR = 3.05, 95%CI(1.49?6.26)]. The prevalence of C. trachomatis was 7.90% [95% CI(2.95?16.39)] in the males vs. 12.86% [95% CI (6.05?23.00)] in the females, p = 0.324. The prevalence of N. gonorrhoea was 3.79%[95% CI (0.79?1.08)] in the males vs. 9.86% [95% CI (4.06?19.26)]in the females, p = 0.137. HIV was significantly associated with C. trachomatis, [p = 0.032, OR = 3.18, 95% CI (1.04?9.72)], but was not significant when stratified by gender. HIV was not significantly associated with N. gonorrhoea (p = 0.072) but it was significantly associated when stratified by gender, p = 0.001 for females. There were no significant associations between HIV and age (p = 0.408), even upon stratification by gender. Conclusions: HIV prevalence in this community is high, and corresponds to national figures. However, the prevalence of STIs is surprisingly low as it would be expected to be high in a migrant population. Although communities are exposed to expanding peer-education activities that encourage behaviour change, the prevalence of HIV in this group. There is an urgent need for interventions designed to treat or prevent HIV infection in women generally and in women at high risk. Keywords: HIV prevalence, STI prevalence, antenatal, mining|