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|Mill log analyses and complementary hot deformation studies were carried out on the as-cast structure and on a hot rolled structure of the same low carbon steel (SAE 1006) that had been processed according to the direct or hot charge route in a compact strip plant. The main softening mechanisms during hot rolling were found to be complete dynamic recrystallization during each pass above about 1000°C for the as-cast structure with an austenite grain size of 277µm and, secondly, incomplete static recrystallization after each pass with a finer austenite grain size of about 26 µm and tested below 1000°C. A two-stage hot working mechanism has also been found by others on a similar steel also processed by the hot charge route and this may appear to be a characteristic of this type of material. Constitutive constants determined from hot working studies were combined with other constants from the literature and incorporated into a grain size development model that correctly predicts the final ferrite grain size in the hot rolled strip steel. The predicted incomplete static recrystallization during the last three finishing passes in the plant appears to result in some retained strain in the hot rolled austenite as it transforms to ferrite on the run-out table. Analyses with the model predict relatively little sensitivity of the final ferrite grain size to process and product variables such as temperature and strain per pass for the last three passes and also the starting austenite grain size in the slab. Keywords: Low carbon steel, hot rolling of strip steel, rolling mill log analyses, austenite grain size, ferrite grain size, grain size modelling.|