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|During galena flotation of Rosh Pinah milled material, metal ions and salts contents of various water resources (deionized, simulated circulated, lead concentrate thickener, lead tailing thickener and borehole) influenced mineral recoveries, upgrade ratios, selectivities, froth stability and flotation kinetics. The various water resources employed during galena flotation caused activation, depression or selectivity effects on minerals due to the presence of different ions in solution. Metal ions in these water resources were adsorbed by the ore, whilst ions associated with gangue minerals (dolomite and quartz) were released into the flotation pulp. Lead concentrate thickener water caused depression of sphalerite and pyrite, increased fast floating fractions for silver, copper minerals, sphalerite and quartz (unwanted), and improved slow floating rate selectivity against pyrite and sphalerite. Lead tailing thickener water enhanced sphalerite recovery during galena flotation (unwanted), and increased fast floating fractions of pyrite. Western borehole water did not affect galena recovery, but sphalerite and pyrite recoveries were unacceptably too high. Ions from copper, lead, and zinc salts tended to release high amounts of ions, such as calcium, magnesium, silicon, and manganese from gangue minerals (dolomite and quartz) during milling. During galena flotation, lead ions depressed sphalerite, pyrite and dolomite at a lead concentration of 400 ppm, but sphalerite was activated at a concentration of 800 ppm. Sphalerite was activated with copper ions (89% recovery, 2.09 upgrade ratio) and depressed with zinc ions (maximum recovery of 25%). This corresponds with findings in previous investigations. Dolomite and quartz were slightly activated with zinc ions. No evidence was found that lead and copper ions activated any gangue minerals during galena flotation. Keywords: galena, water resources, metal ions, activation, depression, selectivity.|