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|Mineral processing models have been discussed for many years but it was not until digital computers became available about 1960 that serious attempts at circuit simulation could be carried out. Even then the work was primarily academic until PCs could be used by engineers in plants and design offices in the mid-1980s. Since then simulation has moved quickly and it is now at the point that most processes can be simulated reasonably accurately for purposes of design and optimization. There are still some significant deficiencies, notably in dry grinding and separation, and in the chemical interactions in flotation. Future work will involve: ?improvements of existing models ?dynamic simulation for automatic control and, in particular ,for training which is a weak link ?using advanced simulation models to predict liberation and separation from data acquired from SEM-based liberation analysers. Eventually mineral processes models will be part of total simulation systems which will incorporate mining and downstream processes including all environmental impacts.|