FABRICATION of thin-film circuits deposited on glass substrates requires the formation of permanent electrical contacts. Since thin films are in the order of a few thousand angstroms thick and are deposited on nonconductive surfaces such as glass, new methods of lead attachment are being pursued in the microelectronics industry. Ultrasonic welding is being considered in thin-film technology since joining can be accomplished between a wide variety of dissimilar materials.l,'
Ultrasonic welding is accomplished by a transducer-coupling-tip system which converts high-frequency electrical energy into mechanical vibrations and delivers it into the weld region. During the process the tip oscillates in a direction parallel to the surface of the weldments, inducing shear stresses in the work pieces which are clamped between the tip and anvil. Though the basic bonding mechanism is not clearly understood, it has been described as closely akin to friction welding.
In the course of an investigation concerned with ultrasonic we!ding of aluminum wires to tantalum thin films (1400A) deposited on glass, low weld strengths were related to glass failure. Upon investigating this condition, an improved method of bonding was developed where the aluminum was held at a temperature where a minimum amount of strain hardening occurred during the introduction of ultrasonic energy.
Experimental Procedure. Aluminum wires (0.015 in,) were bonded to tantalum thin films with an optimized set of welding parameters (power, time, clamping force) employing a commercial 100-w 60-kc ultrasonic welder. Forty-five degree shear-peel tests, where the lead is pulled at a 45-deg angle with respect to the substrate at 0.2 in. per min, produced a large variation from zero to the strength of the wire, Table I. Inspection of the weld region generally revealed: glass cracking before and after testing; the removal of glass nuggets from the substrate by the lead during testing, Table I; thin-film penetration.
In an effort to improve the shear-peel strength, the aluminum between the tip and substrate was heated above ambient temperature through an argon gas media prior to and during welding with the same parameters employed above. With the addition of heat: wire deformation was increased; shear-peel tests all failed at the weld-wire junction, leaving the bonded portion undisturbed; no evidence of glass cracking or film penetration prior to or after testing was observed.
In order to prevent failure at the weld-wire junction due to excessive wire deformation, 0.035-in. aluminum wires were welded to tantalum thin films with an optimized set of welding and heating parameters. As
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Transactions of the Metallurgical Society of AIME
PART IV - Communications - Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminum Leads to Tantalum Thin Films