Prediction Of Settlement Of Structure With Piled-Raft Foundation Using Nodular Piles

Kobayashi, Koichi
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 8
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2006
Performance-based approach to design of structures including foundations was adopted after enforcement of the revised Building Standard Law in Japan in 2000. The use of piled-raft foundation is favorable for medium-rise buildings in soft ground because of its good performance. In the design of the piled-raft foundation (Architectural Institute of JAPAN2002), vertical load is usually carried by the raft foundation, while the pile is primarily meant to control settlement of the structure. Shaft friction is expected to be larger in a nodular pile(Karkee, et.al., 1998) since it has larger surface area than a straight pile, and such piles are frequently used in piled-raft foundations. Since few structures with piled-raft foundation exist currently, the settlement characteristics of piled-raft foundation have not been fully clarified. To design piled-raft foundations with better confidence, the mechanism of vertical bearing capacity and the spatial distribution of settlement should be clarified, for which the actual behavior of the building-foundation system needs to be evaluated. This paper presents observations of settlement of a building with a piled-raft foundation at a soft ground site. The building is a steel structure covering an area an 766 m2, and consists of two-storey office block and one-storey warehouse block. The filled ground of about 5-m thickness at the ground surface is underlain by approximately 4-m thick alluvial sand layer below which lies about a 17-m thick alluvial clay layer with SPT N-value less than 2. The piles used in the piled-raft foundation are 12-m long nodular piles with nodal diameter of 500 mm (pile shaft diameter is 400 mm). The bored pre-cast piling method (Karkee, et.al., 1998) was used to install the piles. To evaluate the foundation settlement, the method of analysis of three-dimensional frame system, utilized widely in Japan, was adopted in combination with the foundation system. Basic assumptions were: (i) total ground settlement is evaluated as the sum of immediate settlement and consolidation settlement, (ii) immediate settlement is evaluated from the Mindlin?s solution in which strain dependency of shear modulus of soil is considered, (iii) settlement in clayey layers is evaluated by the one-dimensional consolidation theory, and (iv) shear spring between soil and pile shaft is represented by a hyperbolic function. The applicability of the method of analysis was verified by comparison with results of field monitoring of building settlement.
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