Minipiles And Jet-Grouting: A Strong Foundation In Parma, Italy
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Jan 1, 2011
The objective of the ? 200 million ($280 million) project Parma Railways Station-Urban Transformation was the reconnection of the North and South parts of the town by constructing an 80 m (250 ft) wide sunken artery passing under the four double railway tracks of the station without any impact on train traffic. The site of the project, adjacent to the Parma River, presented water seepage problems at any excavation depth. The use of conventional large diameter bored pile machinery was not allowed by the Railway Authority because equipment dimension and construction phases do not comply with train traffic safety regulations. Foundations for the bypass were thus constructed by minipiles nested into jet-grouted soil using machinery operating within the existing head room and at a safe distance from the tracks. Jet-grouting treatment reached depths of 25 to 28 m (80 to 90 ft) from tracks? grade and embedded minipile-heads were terminated at 2 to 3 m (6.6 to 10 ft) below grade. Load tests on minipiles were pushed to failure. Failure occurred at a 240 t (265 t) load without breakage of the bond between the jet grouted soil and the minipiles. A 0.93 MPa (135 psi) shear resistance ??? between minipile steel casing and the jet grouted soil was measured prior to the failure of the steel casings. Overall measured foundation settlements were well within expected values and were considered insignificant.