Verification Of Drilled Shaft Resistance By The Post Grouting Method

Pooranampillai, Suthan
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 10
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2010
Verification of drilled shaft resistance is primarily obtained through the use of different load testing methods. Procedures utilized include conventional top down static loading, the Osterberg load cell (O-cell) test and dynamic tests such as the Statnamic method. The O-cell test provides a means of obtaining separately the base and side shear resistance behavior of drilled shafts (cast-in-drilled-hole). Alternatively, the Statnamic load test method enables the engineer to derive base and side shear behavior separately, based on measurements of load, accelerations and strains along the length of the shaft. However, due to time and cost constraints these tests can only be performed on selected shafts within a project. Post grouting of a drilled shaft base embedded within a cohesionless material, with a low mobility compaction grout, will essentially pre-load the shaft base soil against the side shear and self-weight in much the same manner as an O-cell load test (when the load cell is placed within the base vicinity). Therefore, successful post grouting of a drilled shaft would enable verification of both shaft side shear and base resistance simultaneously on each and every shaft it is carried out on. Additionally, such post grouted shafts display stiffer load-displacement response during subsequent downward, superstructure induced, loading compared to ungrouted shafts. Verification of resistance on each and every shaft through the use of post grouting will allow an increase in resistance factors (reduction in safety factor) used in the design. Two 6 ft. diameter drilled shafts were constructed in Fredonia, WA, for WSDOT, each with an approximate length of 52 ft. The shafts were terminated within medium dense poorly graded silty sand. Statnamic load testing of the shafts indicated maximum derived static side shear and base resistances of 2545 kips and 507 kips (1.6 in. displacement) for shaft One and 2466 kips and 212 kips (1.4 in. displacement) for shaft Two. Shaft Two was subsequently grouted, with a low mobility compaction grout. Shaft base mounted total earth pressure cells measured a maximum sustained pressure of 55.44 ksf during the compaction grouting operation. Shaft displacement reached 0.65 inches in the upward direction at termination of grouting. Comparison of grouting data with initial load test information indicates that properly instrumented post grouting verifies shaft base and side shear resistance. In addition, these grouting induced resistances were much higher than design values supplied by the engineer using conventional resistance factor design. Large scale laboratory testing also shows that base grouting verifies higher soil resistances than permissible in conventional design.
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