Design And Construction Of Drilled Shafts In Iraq
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Jan 1, 2009
The United States government sponsored the construction of a new vehicular bridge over the Diyala River in Bubriz, Iraq. This paper describes the geotechnical engineering for design and construction of drilled shaft foundations for this bridge. An Iraqi geotechnical engineering firm made borings and laboratory tests while analysis and design recommendations were provided in the United States. Despite the severe challenges of engineering in a war zone, excellent cooperation was the key to a successful effort. Three drilled shafts designs were necessary to accommodate the different subsurface conditions: a) medium-compact to compact sands, b) stiff to hard clays and c) mixed soil profile. The alpha and beta methods were used to estimate capacities for a conservative design, recognizing that quality control during construction might be less than what is normally provided in the United States. Iraq has a high seismic risk and LPILE was used to estimate the drilled shaft response during earthquake loading conditions. Settlement estimates were made using FHWA methods. Construction was carried out entirely by local Iraqi firms, despite the challenges of working in an active conflict area.