Formation Of Interlocking Jet Grout Columns At Large Depth

Ho, Chu E.
Organization: Deep Foundations Institute
Pages: 10
Publication Date: Jan 1, 2008
Jet grout column formation at large depths are prone to several uncertainties, such as inaccuracy in setting out boreholes, drilling deviation, soil variability and reduced jetting energy at the nozzle. This would result in shorter cutting distance of the jet, with potential lack of interlock between grouted columns. A design strategy for mitigating the risk should include a soil investigation program aimed at discovering potential variability in soil conditions at the locations of jetting. Determination of soil strength profiles with depth would be useful for evaluation of jetting parameters and prediction of the achievable cutting distance at any depth. Selection of design column spacing should include allowance for setting out accuracy, verticality of the boreholes and the achievable jet cutting distance. For deep jet grouting operations, it would be necessary to take into account the energy losses at the nozzle inlet; however the increase in the presiding pressure at the nozzle outlet at depth is small relative to the range of jetting pressures commonly employed and would not affect the cutting distance to any significant degree. Design column spacing should not be so close as to cause problems with ?masking? which may lead to localized ungrouted zones of soil. For effective field control, boreholes should be cased up to the top elevation of the grouted zone so that the orientation of the borehole can be measured prior to grout injection. An analytical equation for calculating the cutting distance is proposed for adjusting jetting parameters where necessary to compensate for drilling deviation and changes in soil conditions. It is preferable that jet grouting trials be executed at elevations that correspond to the actual production jet grouting depths for accurate evaluation of jet cutting performance.
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